Problems in industries, services, aviation and in general supply chain management problems can be either modelled using classical optimization techniques or approaches based on simulation techniques. The former techniques have the advantage that they perform efficiently when the problems are properly defined, but they present the drawback that are generally based on some fixed parameters. Furthermore sometimes important information is lost during the abstraction process in order to fit the problem in the optimization technique; on the other hand, simulation approaches have the advantage that they possess high description levels but the optimization is generally performed taking samples of the whole possible configurations that the system can have.
In later years scientific community is concerned in developing hybrid approaches that benefit from the advantages of both paradigms in order to give good solutions to important problems in services, production processes or supply chains such as scheduling, routing problems and resource allocations among others.
Some immediate applications are in :